Ibisazi nk’impamvu yo kutaryozwa icyaha

NZAFASHWANAYO Dieudonné

NZAFASHWANAYO Dieudonné

Muri iyi minsi abantu bakomeje kumva mu bitangazamakuru bitandukanye abantu bakekwaho gukora ibyaha by’ubugome akenshi ku mpamvu zitumvika n’ubwo impamvu (motives) zitakuraho uburyozwa cyaha.

Mu mategeko mpanabyaha umuntu wakoze icyaha aba agomba kucyiryozwa kuko bifitwa ko yagikoze ntakibazo afite (presumption of sanity).

Nyamara umuntu ashobora kutaryozwa icyaha yakoze bitewe n’impamvu zimushingiyeho cg zishingiye kumikorerwe y’icyaha. Twibanze ku mpamvu zishingiye ku ukekwa ubwe, ibisazi (insanity) ni imwe muri izo.

Aha turagaraza igihe bavuga ko umuntu yari afite ibisazi ku rwego rwo kutaryozwa icyaha tureba uburyo butandukanye bwemejwe n’inkiko harebwamo ko umuntu wakoze icyaha yari afite ibisazi bituma adahamwa n’icyaha ku mpamvu y’ibisazi (not guilty by reason of insanity defence).

Mbere y’umwaka w’1843 bavugaga ko umuntu yashoboraga kwitwaza ibisazi nyuma yo kugaragaza ko atashoboraga kumenye icyiza n’ ikibi mu gihe yakoraga icyaha. Nyuma inkiko zagiye zigaragaza uburyo bukurikira byarebwamo.

Uburyo bwa mbere ni ubwa Mc Naghten. Bukomoka ku izina rya Daniel Mc Naghten warashe umunyamabanga wa Minisitiri w’intebe w’Ubwongereza amwitiranyije na Minisitiri w’Intebe kuko yumvaga ibibazo byose afite bikomoka kuri we (1843). Urukiko rwaje kumugira umwere kubera ibisazi maze biteza ikibazo muri rubanda maze abacamanza bavuga ko umuntu ashobora kugirwa umwere kubera iyo mpamvu kubera ko “yari afite uburwayi bwo mu mutwe cg ikibazo cyo mu mutwe cyatumye atamenya ibyo yakoraga ibyo aribyo cg se niba yari abizi ntamenye ko byari byiza cg bibi”.

Uburyo bwa kabiri ni ubwo kutihanganira icyatumye ukora icyaha (Irrestible impulse). Muri ubu buryo umuntu agirwa umwere kubera impamvu y’ibisazi iyo yakoze icyaha biturutse ku kibazo cyo mu mutwe yatewe n’impamvu ntihanganirwa ituma umuntu akora adatekereje bityo ntabashe kugenzura ibikorwa bye. Iyi ni yo yakoreshejwe mu rubanza Commonwealth v. Rodgers, 1844.

Uburyo bwa gatatu ari nabwo bwa nyuma ni uburyo bwa Durham. Muri ubu buryo byitwa ko umuntu yagirwa umwere kubera ibisazi iyo yari afite ikibazo cg uburwayi bwo mu mutwe igihe yakoraga icyaha. Gusa ubu buryo buracyemangwa ku mpamvu y’uko n’abantu batwawe n’ibiyobyabwenge bayitwaza. Ikaba yaraturutse mu rubanza Durham v. US 1954.

Mu gusoza, nkuko byasobanuwe hejuru abakurikiranye bashobora kutaryozwa ibyaha kubera impamvu zitandukanye harimo n’ibisazi. Ibisazi bikuraho uburyozwacyaha birebwa mu buryo butandukanye ari ubwa “Mc Naghten rule”, “Durham rule” ndetse na “Irrestible impulse” bitewe n’igihugu (jurisdiction). Gusa kugeza ubu mu Rwanda nta buryo buzwi bukoreshwa birakwiye rero ko umushingamategeko yazateganya uburyo (test) ibisazi bikuraho uburyozwacyaha byarebwamo.

NZAFASHWANAYO Dieudonné

 

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Posted on 27/08/2013, in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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